The voice vote is partially anonymous: the person sitting next to a member may know how his or her neighbour voted, but the person presiding and the public may not. An O-MUN debate proceduraly models a THIMUN-style debate. There is also the vexed question of attendance allowances. This would not work with six hundred people (as in the constituent assemblies of Kenya [2005] or Nepal [ongoing process]). Our constitution-making experts are here to answer your questions and queries. Senators should raise their hand if they want to speak on a Bill and the President of the Senate will call on them if he/she wants to let them speak. In legislative committees in the United States, “women entered the discussion later, spoke less, took fewer turns, and made fewer interruptions than men” (Kathlene 1994: 565). These could be professions, religious groups, ethnic or linguistic groups, or possibly certain major NGOs. &. It is desirable for all these rules to be spelled out clearly. &F a$gd|:l $ Cultural practices and social expectations often make it hard for women to participate fully in public bodies. But in Kenya [2005], the adoption of any clause of the new constitution required a two-thirds majority of the constituent assembly. Once the vote has been counted, the resulted will be read out by the chair. R h d * ´ ¼ o _ V ÷ ÷ ì ì ì ì á á á á á á Ö Ö $ The administration of the constitution-making body should be responsible for ensuring that there is a constant flow of accurate information to the public. When the issue is whether to amend a draft, it favors the draft. there is the risk that members will be tempted to play to the gallery rather than concentrate on the business at hand. A majority of those present (which means that those who are present but abstain from voting are counted as having voted against); where the issue to be voted upon is whether to amend a draft constitution, this rule makes it difficult for the amendment to be accepted, which may be a desirable provision. However, he/she must be fair!! Absence of discipline is likely to produce a more well-informed debate. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Smaller bodies, such as constitutional commissions, may not have such complex sets of rules, but will still need rules on matters such as how it makes decisions, finances, or how many members must be present to make up a quorum for a meeting. Such a voting system is impractical for large constituent assemblies. If it passes, the resolution is amended and debate continues. Senate Debate Rules and Procedures. They should not be too many in number—which means that they must represent substantial (in the sense of important) interest groups or issues. ù They are not unusual, but must be properly policed or members will simply sign and go away. It is a painstaking exercise, which is most rewarding in the end because it produces no losers since all are winners, and promotes legitimacy and acceptable decisions” (Odoki 2005). In Kenya [2010], proposals to a draft constitution could be made by the parliament only by a two-thirds majority of all the members. After counting the number of Senators, let Mr. Sierra know and he will announce the number of votes necessary to pass a Bill. “All those against the Bill, raise your hand.” Count the votes. Should there be a formal possibility of cross-party alliances or caucuses? They could thus have the opportunity to persuade, but not in any way to coerce. Provisions about sign language could also be explicit. Procedures to follow: Use the gavel and call the Senate to Order. In the French constituent assembly the mob terrorized the delegates. The only way a Filibuster can be stopped is if a Senator stands up and calls for a Cloture Vote. The President of the Senate, (selected by lottery) is in charge, he/she has the power. Some members might be tempted not to think hard about how they should vote, because they would not be answerable for it. At least 75 percent of all the members, whether present or not (sometimes used to amend constitutional clauses regarded as being of particularly great significance). There are other procedures that you will want to know about, including tournament debating, and they are available on this site. In many constitution-making processes the required majority is set at two- thirds of the entire body. ), whether for other reasons the process isallowed to drag on for too long, and the effectiveness of the chair. Online Model United Nations is a program of MUN Impact and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. The South African process was open: all meetings of the constituent assembly and its bodies were accessible to the public. Call on Senators as they raise their hands, the President of the Senate will control the debate/discussion, and won’t let it get out of hand. Narrowly focused groups’ concerns could be met by their having access to relevant thematic committees. In Timor-Leste [2002] a female constituent assembly member raised the issue of domestic violence and was laughed at by many male members. This is quite low; discussion could begin when only women were present, or only men, or only members of one or two castes or ethnic groups. THIMUN rules and procedures will be followed as closely as the virtual environment allows. ÿÿÿÿ :‡«û2Ï ÿÿÿÿ ï One writer (Aili Mari Tripp) says, “Even in parliamentary bodies, women have difficulty being taken seriously, being listened to, and are frequently subjected to humiliating stereotypes and derogatory remarks” (Tripp 2011: 153). This section focuses particularly on constituent assemblies, and to some extent on commissions, though the issues are relevant to all bodies that engage in constitution-making tasks. If a Senator starts to conduct a Filibuster, that Senator can speak for as long as he/she wants. There is also evidence of sexual harassment of women parliamentarians in some countries, including in South Africa (Geisler 2000: 618) and Uganda (Tripp 2001: 153, citing Tamale 1999), and even in Sweden (The Local 2007). In addition to speaking on the resolution, delegates may submit amendments. There is also a risk in some countries of bribery; this certainly took place in the Kenyan National Constitutional Conference [2005]. Will the Chairperson for the Committee that considered this Bill please come forward and introduce it, and provide the Senate with information on how the Committee voted and why it believes the Bill should become law.” [President of the Senate will say this for each Bill that is to be considered by the Senate.]