FACU). Ilex opaca Identification Features: • EVERGREEN. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 110(2): 228-230. Exact status definitions can vary from state to Plant Type: Evergreen large shrub/tree. The Auk 59(4): 581-581. http://coastalplainplants.org/wiki/index.php?title=Ilex_opaca&oldid=90226. Your help is appreciated. actually Ilex x attenuata, a cross of Ilex cassine x Ilex opaca, and has only a small spine at the leaf tip. What we call "American holly," Ilex opaca var. A. and D. J. Leopold (2006). Many are grown for their attractive, evergreen foliage. Ilex opaca. Ilex opaca: leaf blades dull or barely sublustrous, and flowers and fruits solitary or in solitary, peduncled cymes on the branchlets of the current season (vs. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. (1997) p 198 Parts Shown: Fruit, Habit, Leaf Photo Tolerant of salt spray, American holly can be planted to restore damaged coastal areas. Common names are from state and federal lists. (2004). • ALTERNATE branching pattern. Photo about Leaf of American holly, Ilex opaca in spring. Species. The branchlets are stout, green at first and covered with rusty down, later smooth and brown. stamineum. "Sexual Dimorphism and Fruit Production in a Dioecious Understory Tree, Ilex opaca Ait." To reuse an Ilex opaca (American Holly) Holly Family (Aquifoliaceae) Botanical Characteristics: Native habitat: Massachusetts to Florida, west to Texas and Missouri. var. Database of observations of Hymenoptera visitations to flowers of plants on Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA. Other names. Seeds with hard, bony endocarp (pyrenes), often grooved or ribbed on the back, 4-7 in a fruit, 1 in each locule.”[4], "Medium or large tree, usually with a columnar or conical growth form, twigs minutely pubescent, glabrate. All Characteristics, the plant is a shrub (i.e., a woody plant with several stems growing from the base), the flowers grow out of the axil (point where a branch or leaf is attached to the main stem), the inflorescence has only one flower on it, the leaf blade is elliptic (widest near the middle and tapering at both ends), the leaf blade is lanceolate (lance-shaped; widest below the middle and tapering at both ends), the leaf blade is oblong (rectangular but with rounded ends), the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends). Ilex opaca, American Holly, Christmas Holly. populations both exist in a county, only native status Those with yellow berries include: ‘Xanthocarpa’, ‘Canary’, and ‘Morgan Gold’. Broad-leaf evergreen, in the center of dark whorling foliage vibrant red berries cluster. Its principal value is as an ornamental planting and source of holiday decorations. Plant Ecology 183(2): 349-359. I do not know if it is a male or female. This species is introduced to CT and native to the other states it occurs in. Flora of the southern and mid-atlantic states. arenicola American holly Ilex opaca var. The flowers of both sexes retain both male and female reproductive organs, however, only one is reproductively functional. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 120(4): 423-430. this species is… Due to extensive cultivation of the American Holly by nurseryman and gardeners alike, there are currently over 1000 different cultivars, with more being patented every year (Holly Society of America).The tree is ridiculously tough. Print. "Extant and Potential Vegetation of an Old-Growth Maritime Ilex opaca Forest." The American Holly is considered one of the most popular trees in the world. Note: when native and non-native [12] Groves provide shelter to red-eyed towhee, bluebirds, cardinals, white throated sparrow, and robins.[13]. Another closely-related variety found here in Florida is scrub holly, Ilex opaca var. [3], “Trees or shrubs, usually with imperfect flowers. The American Indians used preserved holly berries as decorative buttons and were much sought after by other tribes who bartered for them. Leaves are 2”-4” long. opaca American holly Legal Status. CT, MA, RI; on the coastal plain. Pedicels usually densely canescent. 679-81. Ostrokrzew (Ilex L.) – rodzaj roślin z rodziny ostrokrzewowatych (Aquifoliaceae Bartl.). Microscopic examination of mature leaves revealed that the epidermis is thickened at the leaf margin, and that the leaf is cirucumscribed by a pair of fibrous veins. It is susceptible to many different diseases such as: 14 species of leaf spot fungi, 6 species of black mildews, 2 powdery mildews, leaf drop, leaf scorch, and chlorosis. Also covers those considered historical (not seen American holly. Mature Size: 20’-25’ tall 10’-15’ wide. evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). [1] The fine-textured wood is ideal for inlays in cabinetwork, carvings and vanier. I. opaca, with the leaf blades dull or barely sublustrous, and flowers and fruits solitary or in solitary, peduncled cymes on the branchlets of … Typically, its trunk diameter reaches 50 cm (20 in), sometimes up to 120 cm (47 in). image, please click it to see who you will need to contact. Usually occurs in non-wetlands, but occasionally in wetlands. Landscape Characteristics: Used as hedge or at corners of buildings. Those cultivars particularly adapted for the south include: ‘Amy’ - female, abundant fruit; ‘Bountiful’ - Ilex opaca The fruit is a red drupe containing four pyrenes. Ilex opaca. [9], The fruit is a four-seeded drupe that is dispersed by birds and small mammals. The winter buds are brown, short, obtuse or acute. The wood has been used for making canes, scroll work and furniture, and has even been substituted for ebony in inlay work when stained black. state. Petrides, G. A. Ilex opaca: American Holly 4 Pests Holly leaf miner larvae mines out the leaf middle leaving yellow or brown trails. Torrey Bot. [10] Carr (1991) showed that embryonic development in vitro is suppressed by light. Scales of various types may infest holly. Ait. Ilex opaca is dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate trees. Beautifully shaped, Ilex opaca (American Holly) is an upright, evergreen tree of symmetrical, dense, pyramidal habit with stout, stiff branches bearing leathery, dark green leaves, 2-4 in. Forest Ecology and Management 310: 944-955. American Holly - Ilex opaca Holly Family (Aquifoliaceae) Introduction: American holly is a broad-leaf evergreen with a beautiful shape, but with a variety of insect and disease problems. From Jack: Here is a very old Ilex opaca on my farm on the Albemarle Sound. opaca, is only one variety of the species. in part by the National Science Foundation. The bark is easily injured by fire and large trees may be killed by light fires in the understory. "On the Function of Leaf Spines in Ilex opaca." Diseases Tar spot may occasionally cause small yellow spots on the leaves in early summer. Deyrup, M.A. Germination is epigeal and very slow, usually requiring 16 months to 3 years. Club 110: 228-230. [2] Many insects also plague I. opaca such as: the southern red mite, which reduces the leaf and twig growth; the native holly leaf miner which causes leaves to drop prematurely; and the holly midge, which feeds on the berries hindering them from turning red. This tree is very tall. Image of lush, branch, close - 166015053 Wet-mesic to mesic forests, occasionally found on drier sites. Take a photo and Image of aquifolium, garden, ornamental - 146697571 Flower: Species is dioecious; dull green-white, male flowers on 3 to 7 flowered cymes, female flowers are solitary with a pleasant odor, appearing in late spring. var. The tree offers clusters of red berries that persist throughout fall and winter. This is an evergreen species; the foliage is use in the autumn and winter for arrangements. Go Botany: Native Plant Trust It is the classic holly of Christmas wreathes, with leathery, evergreen leaves having sharp points along their margins, and dramatically contrasting bright red berries produced in late fall. Ilex opaca American Holly Aquifoliaceae. In other ways it resembles the traditional hollies. Cohen, S., R. Braham, and F. Sanchez. The results suggest that the thick glabrous cuticle and tough leaf margin of Ilex opaca are more important than the spinose teeth in deterring edge-feeding caterpillars. • Leaves are SIMPLE, BROAD, and OVAL-shaped. Florida State University Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium database. Habeck, and J.A. County documented: documented Clustered flowers bloom from May-June. It is in leaf all year, in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from November to December. The trees will grow slowly to about 18m high in an attractive conical form. arenicola (Ashe) Ashe – dune holly, American holly : Variety: Ilex opaca var. (2019) p 411-13 Parts Shown: Habit, Leaf, Fruit Photo Dirr, Michael A. Dirr's Hardy Trees and Shrubs. For many plants, the website displays maps showing physiographic provinces within the Carolinas and Georgia where the plant has been documented. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. [5], I. opaca has been observed flowering from February through July with peak inflorescence in April. It's a touch less hardy, and grows well in USDA zones 5 through 9. The bark is light gray, roughened by small warty lumps. Its wood is dense and challenging to work, but can be used to produce small items and veneer. Soils include sandy loam, loam, and medium loam; however, does not favor well in clay.