The gametophyte phase is the primary phase in non-vascular plants, such as mosses and liverworts. The other alternating phase in the life cycle of the plant is the gametophyte generation, in which gametes are formed. Plant sporophytes represent the asexual phase of the cycle and produce spores. The gametophyte represents the sexual phase of the life cycle as gametes are produced in this phase. This alternation of generation is highly significant in plants, as it increases the chances of the plant’s survival in the long run. By next week, the sporophyte will be very small but it should be visible. The zygote represents the sporophyte phase, which consists of the plant generation with diploid cells. The fern sporophyte, or diploid structure, is the leafy plant that most of us think of when we think about ferns. Gametophyte development in ferns Unlike bryophytes, in vascular plants the sporophyte generation is macroscopic but the gametophyte generation is microscopic. Dr Patrick Brownsey and Dr Leon Perrie from Te Papa explain why ferns are unique among land plants. The heart-shaped prothallia produce gametes that unite to form a zygote, which develops into a new sporophyte plant. ✤ In the sporophyte phase, haploid spores are formed and in the gametophyte phase, diploid male and female gametes are formed. They mature at different times in order to increase the chances of cross-fertilisation and genetic variation. When you’re studying the life cycle of plants, fungi, and protists, you will come across the term alternation of generations. The sporophyte of ferns is differentiated into true leaves, stem, and roots. They act as soil binders. In seed-bearing vascular plants, such as angiosperms and gymnosperms, the gametophyte is totally dependent on the sporophyte for development. These spores develop into two distinct types of gametophytes; one type produces sperm and the other produces eggs. This phase in the life cycle of a plant is the asexual, spore-bearing generation of the plant, featuring diploid cells. gametophyte. The fern gametophyte is a small plant that exists as a prolonged intermediate in the fern life cycle, between the germination of a spore and the mature sporophyte. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Unlike bryophytes, fern sporophytes are free-living and only briefly dependent on the maternal gametophyte. These generations are phases in the reproduction cycle of the plant. and ferns really confuse me! (2) Released from its spore case, the haploid spore is carried to the ground, where it germinates into a tiny, usually heart-shaped, gametophyte (gamete-producing structure), anchored to the ground by rhizoids (rootlike projections). Spores can be stored more or less indefinitely at room temperature. Ferns belong to the Division Pterophyta characterized by vascular plants with leaves (fronds) arising from subterranean, creeping rhizomes. The spores, in turn, produce the gametophytes that give rise to the male and female gametes through the process of meiosis. SUSUMU NISHINAGA/Science Photo Library/Getty Images, Plant Life Cycle: Alternation of Generations, Characteristics of Mosses and Other Non-Vascular Plants, Biology Prefixes and Suffixes: heter- or hetero-, Sexual Reproduction Advantages and Disadvantages, A.S., Nursing, Chattahoochee Technical College. In vascular plants, they are located in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and root apical meristem (RAM). Meiosis is the type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in half. During the gametophyte stage, haploid (n) gametes or reproductive cells such as sperm and eggs are developed. Commonly in primitive vascular plants, the haploid gametophyte phase occurs in a manner that allows it to be surrounded by tissues of the parent sporophyte, such as within cones, seeds, or pollen grains. what is the fern sporophyte? Gametophyte of fern exhibits two "natural means" of vegetative reproduction: gem- mation and branching. The nonsexual phase is the sporophyte. Placental mammals develop (1 point) in an egg laid in water. In seedless vascular plants, such as ferns, the gametophyte and sporophyte generations are both capable of photosynthesis and are independent. Would you like to write for us? Johnson et al. Include in the life cycle 2N, N, sporophyte, gametophyte, meiosis, spores, egg, sperm, antheridium, archigonium, fertilization, sorus. Figure 16.3.3.1 Fern life cycle. Gamatophytes are haploid and develop from spores generated by sporophytes. Possess vascular tissue, true roots, stems, and leaves. The life cycle of the fern has two different stages; sporophyte, which releases spores, and gametophyte, which releases gametes. The situation is quite different from that in animals, where the fundamental process is that a diploid (2 n ) individual directly produces haploid ( n ) gametes by meiosis. Upon germination, the haploid spores undergo mitosis to form a multicellular gametophyte structure. 1A). Marchantia, Female Gametophyte Archegonium-bearing structures in a liverwort. Gametophyte generation represents by a prothallus, which is green and photosynthetic produced by a spore of the sporophyte. The sporophyte generation produces spores that grow into a(n) (1 point) gametophyte. Plants reproduce via asexual reproduction as well as via sexual reproduction. Since spores are formed in this generation, the name given to this phase is sporophyte. Plant growth is the process by which the plant grows in size. The tiny sporophyte grows on the gametophyte plant. Gametophytes develop from the germination of spores. The fertilized egg develops into a seed, which is the beginning of a new sporophyte generation. 1.1 The gametophyte generation in a fern plant changes to the sporophyte generation by A.fertilisation B.melosis C.asexual reproduction D.fusion of spores the answer is A.fertilisation right? Locate the sori on the underside. except the small reproductive structures (pollen and ovule). The gametophyte structure of ferns is a heart-shaped plant called a prothallium. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. The gametophyte is composed of prothallus and rhizoids.