For a reader-friendly overview of Vitamin D, see our consumer fact sheet on Vitamin D. Vitamin D (also referred to as "calciferol") is a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in a few foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Borel P, Caillaud D, Cano NJ. 2. Statins Some observational studies support an inverse association between 25(OH)D levels and breast cancer risk and mortality, but others do not [94-97]. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Pediatrics 2008;122:1142-52. Among postmenopausal women and older men, many clinical trials have shown that supplements of both vitamin D and calcium result in small increases in bone mineral density throughout the skeleton [1,75]. Even though sunlight is a major source of vitamin D for some people, the FNB based the vitamin D RDAs on the assumption that people receive minimal sun exposure . Observational studies indicate that greater body weights are associated with lower vitamin D status, and obese individuals frequently have marginal or deficient circulating 25(OH)D levels . One study, for example, tested 25(OH)D levels in 1,092 women in Finland an average of 9 years before their MS diagnosis and compared their outcomes with those of 2,123 similar women who did not develop MS . [, Kassi E, Adamopoulos C, Basdra EK, Papavassiliou AG. Levels of 50 nmol/L (20 ng/mL) or more are sufficient for most people. Vitamin D alone did not significantly affect the development of new serrated polyps, but the combination of vitamin D with calcium increased the risk almost fourfold. Vitamin D bioavailability: State of the art. D Sub-Shell (third outer subshell of an electron shell) D: District spare (Stores 100 code) D: Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, Ohio (designates original point of circulation of a dollar bill) D: Cohen's Measure of Effect Size (statistics; usually expressed as italic d) D: Deutschverzeichnis (Works of Schubert by Otto Erich Deutsch) D Vitamin D is also needed for the normal development and growth of muscle fibers. This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. [, Lehmann U, Hirche F, Stangl GI, Hinz K, Westphal S, Dierkes J. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 and D3 in healthy volunteers, a randomised placebo-controlled trial. However, because the extent and frequency of sunscreen use are unknown, the role that sunscreen may play in reducing vitamin D synthesis is unclear . Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency did not increase the risk of prostate cancer, and higher 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with a lower risk. British Journal of Cancer 2014;111:976-80. [, Crowe M, Wollner L, Griffiths RA. Consumption of human milk alone does not ordinarily enable infants to meet vitamin D requirements, because it provides less than 0.6 to 2.0 mcg/L (25 to 78 IU/L) [1,57,58]. Post-treatment levels of plasma 25- and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D and mortality in men with aggressive prostate cancer. It operates through following business segments: Power Delivery, Power Generation, and Gas Infrastructure. Positive association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and prostate cancer risk: New findings from an updated meta-analysis. Guidelines on vitamin D replacement in bariatric surgery? A few studies have examined the effect of vitamin D supplementation on specific cancers. Nutr Rev 2018;76:380-94. It concluded that the current evidence was insufficient to evaluate the benefits and harms of supplementation to prevent fractures. [, Gowda U, Mutowo MP, Smith BJ, Wluka AE, Renzaho AMN. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2017;46:947-82. [, Crockett SD, Barry EL, Mott LA, Ahnen DJ, Robertson DJ, Anderson JC, et al. Go to www.irs.gov/ScheduleD for instructions and the latest information. The USPSTF evaluated 11 randomized clinical trials of vitamin D and/or calcium supplementation in a total of 51,419 healthy, community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and older who did not have osteoporosis, vitamin D deficiency, or prior fractures [76,77]. A review of 71 observational studies in adults with and without type 2 diabetes from 16 countries found a significant inverse relationship between vitamin D status and blood sugar levels in participants who did and did not have diabetes . A few examples are provided below. Vitamin D helps regulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (and thereby blood pressure), vascular cell growth, and inflammatory and fibrotic pathways . The investigators randomly assigned participants to receive either a bolus oral dose of 2,500 mcg (100,000 IU) vitamin D3 followed by 100 mcg (4,000 IU)/day or a placebo for 16 weeks. The importance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D assay standardization and the Vitamin D Standardization Program. An analysis of NHANES 2011–2014 data on serum 25(OH)D levels found that most people in the United States aged 1 year and older had sufficient vitamin D intakes according to the FNB thresholds . Ann Intern Med 2014;160:810-1. The significance of vitamin D status in breast cancer: A state of the science review. In the NHANES 2001–2006 survey, 25(OH)D deficiency (less than 25 nmol/L [10 ng/mL]) was more than twice as common among children and adults who reported oral steroid use (11%) than in nonusers (5%) .