For a reader-friendly overview of Vitamin D, see our consumer fact sheet on Vitamin D. Vitamin D (also referred to as "calciferol") is a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in a few foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Borel P, Caillaud D, Cano NJ. 2. Statins Some observational studies support an inverse association between 25(OH)D levels and breast cancer risk and mortality, but others do not [94-97]. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Pediatrics 2008;122:1142-52. Among postmenopausal women and older men, many clinical trials have shown that supplements of both vitamin D and calcium result in small increases in bone mineral density throughout the skeleton [1,75]. Even though sunlight is a major source of vitamin D for some people, the FNB based the vitamin D RDAs on the assumption that people receive minimal sun exposure [1]. Observational studies indicate that greater body weights are associated with lower vitamin D status, and obese individuals frequently have marginal or deficient circulating 25(OH)D levels [151]. One study, for example, tested 25(OH)D levels in 1,092 women in Finland an average of 9 years before their MS diagnosis and compared their outcomes with those of 2,123 similar women who did not develop MS [139]. [, Kassi E, Adamopoulos C, Basdra EK, Papavassiliou AG. Levels of 50 nmol/L (20 ng/mL) or more are sufficient for most people. Vitamin D alone did not significantly affect the development of new serrated polyps, but the combination of vitamin D with calcium increased the risk almost fourfold. Vitamin D bioavailability: State of the art. D Sub-Shell (third outer subshell of an electron shell) D: District spare (Stores 100 code) D: Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, Ohio (designates original point of circulation of a dollar bill) D: Cohen's Measure of Effect Size (statistics; usually expressed as italic d) D: Deutschverzeichnis (Works of Schubert by Otto Erich Deutsch) D Vitamin D is also needed for the normal development and growth of muscle fibers. This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. [, Lehmann U, Hirche F, Stangl GI, Hinz K, Westphal S, Dierkes J. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 and D3 in healthy volunteers, a randomised placebo-controlled trial. However, because the extent and frequency of sunscreen use are unknown, the role that sunscreen may play in reducing vitamin D synthesis is unclear [1]. Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency did not increase the risk of prostate cancer, and higher 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with a lower risk. British Journal of Cancer 2014;111:976-80. [, Crowe M, Wollner L, Griffiths RA. Consumption of human milk alone does not ordinarily enable infants to meet vitamin D requirements, because it provides less than 0.6 to 2.0 mcg/L (25 to 78 IU/L) [1,57,58]. Post-treatment levels of plasma 25- and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D and mortality in men with aggressive prostate cancer. It operates through following business segments: Power Delivery, Power Generation, and Gas Infrastructure. Positive association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and prostate cancer risk: New findings from an updated meta-analysis. Guidelines on vitamin D replacement in bariatric surgery? A few studies have examined the effect of vitamin D supplementation on specific cancers. Nutr Rev 2018;76:380-94. It concluded that the current evidence was insufficient to evaluate the benefits and harms of supplementation to prevent fractures. [, Gowda U, Mutowo MP, Smith BJ, Wluka AE, Renzaho AMN. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2017;46:947-82. [, Crockett SD, Barry EL, Mott LA, Ahnen DJ, Robertson DJ, Anderson JC, et al. Go to for instructions and the latest information. The USPSTF evaluated 11 randomized clinical trials of vitamin D and/or calcium supplementation in a total of 51,419 healthy, community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and older who did not have osteoporosis, vitamin D deficiency, or prior fractures [76,77]. A review of 71 observational studies in adults with and without type 2 diabetes from 16 countries found a significant inverse relationship between vitamin D status and blood sugar levels in participants who did and did not have diabetes [146]. A few examples are provided below. Vitamin D helps regulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (and thereby blood pressure), vascular cell growth, and inflammatory and fibrotic pathways [118]. The investigators randomly assigned participants to receive either a bolus oral dose of 2,500 mcg (100,000 IU) vitamin D3 followed by 100 mcg (4,000 IU)/day or a placebo for 16 weeks. The importance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D assay standardization and the Vitamin D Standardization Program. An analysis of NHANES 2011–2014 data on serum 25(OH)D levels found that most people in the United States aged 1 year and older had sufficient vitamin D intakes according to the FNB thresholds [44]. Ann Intern Med 2014;160:810-1. The significance of vitamin D status in breast cancer: A state of the science review. In the NHANES 2001–2006 survey, 25(OH)D deficiency (less than 25 nmol/L [10 ng/mL]) was more than twice as common among children and adults who reported oral steroid use (11%) than in nonusers (5%) [174].