http//, Bromine Science Environmental Forum (BSEF) (2012b) Factsheet TBBPA. They are used commonly in plastics, textiles and electrical/electronic equipment. 91.121.88.211. You can be assured our editors closely monitor every feedback sent and will take appropriate actions. They are highly resistant to degradation in the environment. This site uses cookies to assist with navigation, analyse your use of our services, and provide content from third parties. Environ Health Perspect 119(2):151–154, Schlummer M, Gruber L, Mäurer A et al (2007) Characterization of polymer fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and implications for waste management. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2. While they were intended to improve fire safety, one form—polybrominated diphenyl ethers, or PBDEs—has proved harmful to human health, specifically our hormonal systems. Chemosphere 35:169–179, Roosens L, Abdallah MA-E, Harrad S et al (2009) Exposure to hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) via dust ingestion, but not diet, correlates with concentrations in human serum: preliminary results. 7-9 April 2010, Kyoto, Japan. Environ Sci Technol 44:813–819, Wu N, Herrmann T, Paepke O et al (2007) Human exposure to PBDEs: associations of PBDE body burdens with food consumption and house dust concentrations. Environ Health Perspect 118:572–578, Shaw SD, Berger ML, Harris JH et al (2013) Persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-, Shaw SD, Blum A, Weber R et al (2010) Halogenated flame retardants: do the fire safety benefits justify the risks? Chemosphere 73:161–169, Takigami H, Suziki G, Hirai Y et al (2009) Brominated flame retardants and other polyhalogenated compounds in indoor air and dust from two houses in Japan. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Privacy Policy Select the correct answer using the code given below. Chemosphere 88(11):1276–1282, Allen JG, McClean MD, Stapleton HM et al (2008) Linking PBDEs in house dust to consumer products using X-ray fluorescence. doi: Weiss J, Wallin E, Axmon A et al (2006) Hydroxy-PCBs, PBDEs, and HBCDDs in serum from an elderly population of Swedish fishermen’s wives and associations with bone density. Environ Health Perspect 117:1953–1958, Schecter A, Smith S, Colacino J et al (2011) Contamination of U.S. butter with PBDEs from wrapping paper. Environ Sci Technol 43:7490–7495, Stapleton HM, Klosterhaus S, Keller A et al (2011) Identification of flame retardants in polyurethane foam collected from baby products. Get weekly and/or daily updates delivered to your inbox. In … Environ Int 29:771–779, Haraguchi K, Koizumi A, Inoue K et al (2009) Levels and regional trends of persistent organochlorines and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Asian breast milk demonstrate POPs signatures unique to individual countries. Environ Health Perspect 121:257–261, Eskenazi B, Fenster L, Castorina R et al (2011) A comparison of PBDE serum concentrations in Mexican and Mexican-American children living in California. Zhang Z, Sun Z-Z, Xiao X et al (2013) Mechanism of BDE209- induced impaired glucose homeostasis based on gene microarray analysis of adult rat liver. Fire Technol. Polder A, Gabrielsen GW, Odland JØ et al (2008) Spatial and temporal changes of chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, dioxins (PCDDs/PCDFs) and brominated flame retardants in human breast milk from Northern Russia. Why is there some concern about their use? University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA. Sci Total Environ 391:41–54. Sci Total Environ 409:4048–4053, Di Napoli-Davis G, Owens JE (2013) Quantitation of tetrabromobisphenol-A from dust sampled on consumer electronics by dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction. Additive BFRs migrate out of products and accumulate in dust of indoor environments. National Toxicology Program (NTP) (2013b) Pathology, body weight, and survival tables for peer review, TR-587 tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Neuro Toxicol 28:136–142. National Toxicology Program (NTP) (2013a) Testing status of agents at NTP, pentabromodiphenyl oxide (technical) (DE 71). Lim J-S, Lee D-H, Jacobs DRJ (2008) Association of brominated flame retardants with diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the U.S. population, 2003-2004. Mark F, Dresch EH, Bergfeld B et al (2006) Large scale demonstration of the treatment of electrical and electronic shredder residue, by co-incineration in the Würzburg municipal solid waste incinerator. Because of health concerns, PentaBDE and OctaBDE mixtures were phased out of production in 2005, and DecaBDE and HBCDs are scheduled for global elimination by 2013. Cite as. Explanation of the spectrochemical series of transition metal ions. Click here to sign in with Kitamura S, Kato T, Iida M et al (2005) Anti-thyroid hormonal activity of tetrabromobisphenol A, a flame retardant, and related compounds: affinity to the mammalian thyroid hormone receptor, and effect on tadpole metamorphosis. 2. The information you enter will appear in your e-mail message and is not retained by Phys.org in any form. Approximately 2.6 million tons of WEEE plastics are generated … Conference of the parties to the Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants sixth meeting, Geneva, Switzerland (28 April–10 May 2013). Therefore, it will be possible to collect samples from the same households down the road, to compare them with the batch used in this study, and to analyze the current samples five or ten years out, to see how the BRFs chemicals in our homes may change over time. Where are flame retardants used? Brominated flame retardants are used in many household products like mattresses and upholstery. Not affiliated Exposure of infants and children to FRs in baby products and house dust is of special concern. Environmental profiles of chemical flame-retardant alternatives for low-density polyurethane foam; Vol 1. http//, Carignan CC, Abdallah MA-E, Wu N et al (2012) Predictors of tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCD) in milk from Boston mothers.