It was just pure genius.”. On April 10, 1978 Bob Shepardson and Steve Jobs signed a $13,000 one-page contract for a file manager, a BASIC interface, and utilities. Choose the amount to pay for your annual membership to the Apple Pugetsound Program Library Exchange (A.P.P.L.E.) Without Wozniak being aware, the company arranged a license with Microsoft to receive their recently completed 6502 version of the Altair code. The version with 4K of memory cost $1298. It had color, graphics, sound, expansion slots, game paddles, and a built-in BASIC programming language. As the project got further along and the code was all written, and it was debugging and updating, I would mark up a listing and give it to Mike Peters who would then change whatever was necessary and deliver me a paper tape and I’d start again.”. [1] HP made major inroads in the minicomputer market with their HP 2000 series machines running a custom timesharing version of BASIC. In Integer BASIC all tokens are encoded with high bit off, ... just compare this with the way the Apple II charset is formed by arranging a 64 character ROM into a sophisticated 256 code pattern to provide a main charset and two subsets) share | improve this answer | follow | edited May 14 at 0:00. answered May 13 at 13:32. A marked-up page of the source code for Apple II DOS, written in Assembly for the 6502. text form (in MS-DOS ASCII text format) by clicking here: Here are a few other Tiny Basic resources on the Web: Chipmunk Basic – many links to various Tiny Basic resources, including (what I surmise is) the original Sherry Brothers Tiny Basic source code that I based my work on. Len Shustek is the founding chairman emeritus of the board of trustees of the Computer History Museum. Variable names were converted in the same fashion, with the letters converted to have their high-bit turned on, and any digits in the name represented by the corresponding $B0 through $B9, so that the variable A5 would be tokenized as $C1B5. He added commands to read paddle controllers and over a series of quick edits had a version of the game up and running. BASIC programs requiring floating-point calculations could CALL into these routines. User Group. [19], Like most BASIC implementations of the era, Integer BASIC acted as both the language interpreter as well as the line editing environment. He is also training to become a docent at the Computer History Museum. [26], Integer BASIC also included the AUTO command to automatically enter line numbers at a given starting number like AUTO 100, adding 10 to the last number with every new line. It became Integer BASIC when it was ported to the Apple II and shipped alongside Applesoft BASIC, a port of Microsoft BASIC which included floating-point support. But while Paul was working on the BASIC for Apple Annie (a never-released successor to the Apple II), something happened. 0000015591 00000 n Well, it kind of simplify decoding. How did Apple II BASIC programs protect against listing? [63], Some keywords were represented by multiple tokens; for instance, where Microsoft BASIC had one token for the keyword PRINT, Integer BASIC had three tokens: one if the keyword was followed by no arguments, one if followed by an arithmetic expression, and one if followed by a string literal. The punch cards would then be read into a National Semiconductor IMP-16 and assembled, and a paper tape produced. 0000004653 00000 n It as well keeps testing for a numeric literal the same as without optimized storage: >= '0' AND <='9' or >= $B0 AND <=$B9. It contrasted with the style found in BASICs derived from DEC, including Microsoft BASIC. What it didn’t have was a disk drive. Note the odd syntax of the SCRN, which is technically a function because it returns a value, but does not use function-like syntax which would be. [53][k], The Apple machines did not include dedicated sound hardware, only a simple "beeper". As a senior in high school, Steve Wozniak's electronics teacher arranged for the leading students in the class to have placements at local electronics companies. The entire package of source code, documentation, and example programs is available as a Zip file, which you can download by clicking here: 68000 Tiny Basic version 1.2 (zip file, 79K) The interpreter’s source was written for the Quelo freeware 68000 assembler for CP/M. The MSRP list for Apple II machines. This basic would be the staple for games on the Apple II for several years When variables were encountered, their name was parsed and then looked up in the variable storage area. For comparison, Tiny BASIC tokenized only the line number,[72] while MS BASICs tokenized only the keywords. Retrocomputing Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for vintage-computer hobbyists interested in restoring, preserving, and using the classic computer and gaming systems of yesteryear. Wozniak was sent to Sylvania where he programmed in FORTRAN on an IBM 1130. Interviewed by Bruce Damer, with Len Shustek, on 2013-08-14 in Mountain View, California, X6895.2014. With thanks to Paul Laughton, in collaboration with Dr. Bruce Damer, founder and curator of the DigiBarn Computer Museum, and with the permission of Apple Inc., we are pleased to make available the 1978 source code of Apple II DOS for non-commercial use. [68], Numeric literals, like the value 500, were converted into their 16-bit (two-byte) binary representation, in this case, $01F4 hexidecimal. Other notes of interest include the # (not-equal) comparisons on line 20, the production of a high-pitch sound using a string of PEEKs on line 65 compared to a lower-pitched tone using a loop on line 70, and the mix of graphics and text on a single display. So for instance, while Integer BASIC would convert the line 100 GOTO 200 entirely into tokens that could be immediately read and performed, in MS BASIC only the line number and GOTO would be tokenized, the "100" was left in its original format and had to be re-parsed into a 16-bit integer every time the line was encountered. [32], For step-by-step execution, the TRACE instruction could be used at the command prompt or placed within the program itself. Unlike the Apple I, the Apple II was fully assembled and ready to use with any display monitor. HP also allowed [ and ] in place of ( and ). OBJECT IS TO DESTROY ALL BRICKS WITH 5 BALLS". A cassette containing the source of Apple DOS. It never really got published. [43] Before MS-derived BASICs became the de facto standard, this style was not uncommon; North Star BASIC[44] and Atari BASIC[45] used the same concept, as did others. [1], Wozniak's references for BASIC were a copy of 101 BASIC Computer Games and an HP BASIC manual. [42] This is in contrast to MS-like BASICs where strings are an intrinsic variable-length type. Using integers allowed numbers to be stored in a much more compact 16-bit format that could be more rapidly read and processed than the 32- or 40-bit floating-point formats found in most BASICs of the era. Originally written by Steve Wozniak and used in the Apple II, Sweet 16 can also be ported to other 6502-based systems to provide useful 16-bit functionality. Cool. …In order to use it you had to write some code… there were no commands; you had to do it yourself. [49] This contrasts with the DEC/MS-style string handling which uses string functions like MID$ to access substrings and + for concatenation. That same year, General Electric placed a terminal in the high school that was connected to one of their mainframes running their timesharingBASIC service, which they were heavily promoting at the time. He sometimes, with his programmer wife Kathleen O’Brien, attended the Homebrew Computer Club meetings at Stanford. It originally ran out of RAM and is in ROM in the Replica 1. But Paul was also following the development of small personal computers based on the new microprocessors. You can also use parentheses: 5+6*(10/2) Variables and numbers can be used in expressions.